Prof. Michal Lipson

Eugene Higgins Professor Electrical Engineering
Columbia University

Prof. Michal Lipson

Prof. Michal Lipson is the Eugene Higgins Professor at Columbia University. Her research focus is on Nanophotonics and includes the investigation of novel phenomena, as well as the development of novel devices and applications. Lipson pioneered critical building blocks in the field of Silicon Photonics, which today is recognized as one of the most promising directions for solving the major bottlenecks in microelectronics. She is the inventor of over 30 issued patents and has co-authored more than 200 scientific publications. In recognition of her work in silicon photonics she was awarded the MacArthur Fellow, the Blavatnik Award, and the Optical Society’s R. W. Wood Prize. She was recently named the recipient of the 2019 IEEE Photonics Award. In 2018 an honorary degree from Trinity College, University of Dublin was conferred upon her. Since 2014 she has been named by Thomson Reuters as a top 1% highly cited researcher in the field of Physics.

Presentation Title: "Next Generation Silicon Photonics "

In the past decade, silicon photonics has been shown as a platform for high-performance massively integrated optical devices that can be integrated with state-of-the-art microelectronics. The toolbox of integrated nanophotonics today is rich: from the ability to modulate, guide and amplify at GHz bandwidths, to opto-mechanical and nonlinear devices. The explosion of silicon photonics enabled components with unprecedented performance, and opened the door to a vast variety of applications ranging from micro-lidars for self-driving cars to implantable devices for neural activation. In this talk I will review the current challenges and recent achievements in the field of silicon nanophotonics and present recent results.

Morgan W. Mitchell

ICREA Professor of Quantum Optics
ICFO - The Institute of Photonic Sciences

Morgan W. Mitchell, PhD.

Morgan Mitchell, PhD. from U. C. Berkeley in 1999, is ICREA Professor of Quantum Optics at The Institute of Photonic Sciences in Barcelona, where he leads the experimental research group in Atomic Quantum Optics.  He has made many contributions to the study of quantum noise in atomic instruments, including the first optical magnetometer operating beyond the photon shot noise limit, the first optical magnetometer operating beyond the projection noise limit, and several protocols for generation of metrologically advantageous squeezed and entangled states.

Presentation Title: "Sensing with Squeezed and Entangled States of Light and Atoms"

Control of intrinsic quantum noise was first proposed in the context of gravitational wave detection, and for decades motivated theoretical and technical efforts in quantum optics, paying off with quantum noise reduction in full-scale gravitational wave detectors. In this talk I will describe analogous efforts to reduce quantum noise in atomic instruments, for example inertial sensors, clocks, and magnetometers. I will describe atomic methods to produce spin-squeezed states and quantum non-demolition measurements that far surpass their optical analogues, and also new ideas, including phase magnification and complete evasion of measurement back-action, which to have recently been implemented in atomic systems. If time permits, I will describe emerging scenarios in which quantum sensing overlaps with (atomic) quantum many-body physics, and why this hybrid may be important for understanding quantum noise reduction in advanced instruments.

Dr. Martin Milton

Director of the BIPM

Dr. Martin Milton

Dr. Martin Milton received a BA in Physics from Oxford University in 1981 and a PhD. in Laser Physics from Southampton University in 1990 followed by an MBA from the London Business School in 1991. 

Dr. Milton joined the BIPM in October 2012 as Director Designate and became Director on 1 January 2013. Before his move to the BIPM, Dr Milton spent 31 years at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), United Kingdom where he was a Fellow in the Analytical Science Division.

As Director of the BIPM he manages 74 staff and oversees the impact of the programme of work and relations with stakeholders, including principally the 60 Member States and 42 Associates States.

Dr. Milton has published more than 90 papers in peer-reviewed journals and has received several awards including most recently the Finkelstein Medal of the Institute of Measurement and Control for notable contributions to measurement internationally.

Presentation Title: "The new definitions of the base units of the SI: using the rules of nature to create the rules of measurement"

In November 2018, the General Conference on Weights and Measures agreed one of the most significant changes to the units of the International System (the SI) which bases them on a set of definitions each linked to the laws of physics. This historic change towards using the laws of nature in the definitions removes the final link between the SI and definitions based on physical artefacts. Following the revisions, the kilogram is linked to the exact value of the Planck constant rather than the International Prototype of the Kilogram, as sanctioned by the 1st CGPM in 1889.

For over 200 years, a collective ambition for the “metric system” has been to provide universality of access to the agreed basis for worldwide measurements. The changes to the definitions of the kilogram, the ampere, the kelvin and the mole that were agreed are a further step towards this goal. They are based on the results of research into new measurement methods that have used quantum phenomena as the basis for standards that are fundamental. Great attention has been paid to ensure that these new definitions will be compatible with the current ones at the time the change is implemented. Hence, the changes will be unnoticeable to all but the most demanding users.

Whilst providing the necessary level of continuity for existing users, the changes have the advantage of allowing future improvements in measurement technology to address the needs of users. The new definitions will use ‘the rules of nature to create the rules of measurement’ linking measurements at the atomic and quantum scales to those at the macroscopic level.

Although the definition of the second was not re-considered in 2019, there are plans being developed that will be discussed.